A Socioeconomic Analysis of Kakina Union, Bangladesh and An Impact Assessment of the Projects Implemented by CEI

Thomas Scurfield

January 2012

Executive Summary

This report is the result of ten weeks of fieldwork undertaken in Kakina Union, Bangladesh, on behalf of Charity Education International (CEI). This fieldwork had two objectives: to perform a detailed socio-economic analysis of the geographical area in which CEI predominantly operates, and to report on, and provide recommendations for improving, the Charity's projects.

The main intention of undertaking a socioeconomic analysis of Kakina Union is to provide a set of statistics which can then be compared with those for Bangladesh as a whole. This comparison shows that that this area of Bangladesh is in desperate need of support from charities such as CEI, trailing behind the rest of the country across a wide range of welfare indicators. 49.1% of the population live below the poverty line in Kakina Union, in comparison to only 31.5% in Bangladesh as a whole. A similar gulf in welfare standards can be seen in mortality and literacy rates. Such statistics should persuade donors that this area requires a significant amount of funding to even catch up with the rest of Bangladesh.

A substantial amount of information has also been collected on CEI's three areas of operation: Uttar Bangla College, Kakina Rural Health Centre and Uttar Bangla Poverty Alleviation Society. This work has attempted to quantify the significant impact that the work of CEI is already having in this impoverished area. In doing so, it is clear that the Charity is successfully creating a development model in Kakina Union and beyond, demonstrating that it is possible to do something effective in the fight against poverty. From a college that achieves the best degree results in the district, to a health facility that provides affordable treatment to thousands of people each year, to a microcredit facility which is helping so many out of poverty, the impact that the work of CEI has had, and continues to have, is evident everywhere. The report also highlights a number of ways in which this impact could be increased further still, and indicates where additional funds, if they become available, may be most effectively allocated. Examples of such include expanding the IT facilities and English training at the College, ensuring the new building for the health centre is completed as quickly as possible, and possibly differentiating the interest rate on microcredit loans on the basis of the borrower's wealth.

Table of Contents

Introduction – p.1

A Socioeconomic Analysis of Kakina Union – p.2

An Impact Assessment of CEI Projects – p.4

Uttar Bangla College – p.4

Kakina Rural Health Centre – p.5

Uttar Bangla Poverty Alleviation Society – p.7

Conclusion – p.11

Appendix 1: A Statistical Summary of the Socioeconomic Analysis – p.12

Appendix 2: Data to Support the Impact Assessment – p.17

Introduction

This report is the result of ten weeks of fieldwork undertaken in Kakina Union, Bangladesh, on behalf of Charity Education International (CEI). This fieldwork had two objectives: to perform a detailed socio-economic analysis of the geographical area in which CEI predominantly operates, and to report on, and provide recommendations for improving, the Charity's projects.

The main intention of undertaking a socioeconomic analysis of Kakina Union is to provide a set of statistics which can then (where possible) be compared with those for Bangladesh as a whole.

In doing so, this should demonstrate to donors that the geographical area in which CEI operates has a level of welfare that is even poorer than the Bangladeshi average, and therefore requires additional support. A substantial amount of information has also been collected on CEI's three areas of operation: Uttar Bangla College (UBC), Kakina Rural Health Centre (KRHC) and Uttar Bangla Poverty Alleviation Society (UBPAS). This work has attempted to quantify the significant impact that the work of CEI is already having in this impoverished area. It also highlights a number of ways in which this impact could be increased further still, and indicates where additional funds may be most effectively allocated.

This report would not have been possible without a tremendous amount of help and support from a large number of individuals. There are too many to mention them all by name here. However, I would particularly like to say thank you to Professor Monowarul Islam (Principal, UBC), Mr Yahiya Rahman (Executive Director, UBPAS), Mr Abu Shahadot (Director, KRHC) and Mr Mominur Rahman (Assistant, UBPAS). I would also like to offer my deepest gratitude to Mr Bisaw Nath Roy (Lecturer of Economics, UBC) and Mr Zainal Abedin (Lecturer of Sociology, UBC) who were with me for every minute of the extensive household survey and more. Finally, I would like to convey my sincere thanks to Annie Howie (Administrator, CEI) and, of course, Dr Mozammel Huq (Chairman, CEI).

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A Socioeconomic Analysis of Kakina Union

The main intention of undertaking a socioeconomic analysis of Kakina Union is to provide a set of statistics which can then (where possible) be compared with those for Bangladesh as a whole.

In doing so, this should demonstrate to donors that the geographical area in which CEI operates has a level of welfare that is even poorer than the Bangladeshi average, and therefore requires additional support.

The majority of the information collected on the socioeconomic situation in Kakina Union

has been acquired from a survey of 200 households. These households were located in four villages, which were chosen by my fellow researchers, Mr Bisaw Nath Roy and Mr Zainal Abedin, for providing a representative sample of the Union's socioeconomic spectrum. In turn, households within each village were also chosen with the intention of acquiring a representative sample. Other information has been collected from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey for Bangladesh, undertaken in 2007, and the Union's Government Office.

The complete set of statistics can be found in appendix 1 1. These confirm that CEI is operating in a particularly poverty-stricken part of Bangladesh, with almost all welfare indicators showing a large disparity between this area and the Bangladeshi average. Based on the upper poverty line estimated for the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey in 2010 (HIES 2010), 49.1% of the population live below the poverty line in Kakina Union. In comparison, only 31.5% of the population live below the poverty line in Bangladesh as a whole. Similarly, 27.4% live below the lower poverty line in Kakina Union, whilst the Bangladeshi average is 17.6%. That is, over a quarter of those living in Kakina Union do not have sufficient resources to even consume enough food to achieve the minimum nutritional requirement  2. Data also shows that the average household in Kakina Union has a monthly income that is 60.3% of the national average, and just 70.7% even when only rural areas are considered. Perhaps more concerning, however, is that this income level is less than that required for an average household to live above the poverty line.  3 This clearly demonstrates why the area is widely known as suffering from 'monga', a Bengali term referring to the cyclical phenomenon of poverty and hunger. Not only are almost half of the population living in poverty, but many more households live precariously close to it, making them particularly vulnerable to the inevitable periods of shortage that strike this part of Bangladesh every year.

Other welfare indicators show a similar gulf between the population of Kakina Union and that of Bangladesh as a whole. Infant and child mortality rates are both higher in the area (61 and 150, respectively, per 1,000 live births, compared to the national averages of 52 and 133). The overwhelming majority of households in Kakina Union, 91.5% of them, continue to use non-MBBS doctors as their first line of care, whilst the corresponding figure for the country is 67.0%. The education levels in the area are also significantly poorer than the national average. Only 46.4% of adults are literate, compared to 56% of all adults in Bangladesh. Primary and secondary school enrolment is equally poor relative to that of the whole country.

Many of these outcomes are obviously interlinked. As expected, a household's wider welfare is closely related to whether it is living in poverty or not. For example, 92.4% of the children aged 6-16 years old that do not attend school are from households which live below the poverty line. Similarly, 85.7% of the households which only use non-MBBS doctors are in poverty. Finally, of

1    The corresponding definitions and sources are also given.

2    This is  considered to be 2,122 kcal per day by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

3    Except where stated otherwise, this report is referring to the upper poverty line when discussing poverty.

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the households that were found to have no knowledge of how to prevent contracting diseases such as malaria and typhoid, 88.9% are classified as poor.

So what factors can be identified as causing this high level of poverty? Further research would be needed to satisfactorily address such a complex question. It is possible, however, to find a number of characteristics that impoverished households have in common, providing an indication of where this research would lead. Although unemployment is slightly higher than the national average, only 7.2% of the households living below the poverty line have a member who is unemployed.79.4% of workers from these households are illiterate, however, with 88.7% having completed no more than primary education. In comparison, in households above the poverty line, only 27.1% of workers are illiterate and only 39.7% have completed no more than primary education. Moreover, 87.6% of poor households have no land, or at least not enough to make a living off. Therefore, the only employment option is often manual labour. Indeed, 78.4% of workers in impoverished households are labourers, in comparison to 21.9% of workers in households above the poverty line. Not only is this work low-paid, but there isn't enough of it available. 98.4% of all labourers note that they are underemployed. It is a similar story for those employed elsewhere, such as fishermen and rickshaw-pullers. Indeed, 96.5% of all workers in impoverished households note that there isn't enough work available. Their ability to find other jobs with higher pay and more hours is severely limited, however, due to their low levels of education. Moreover, the relationships between poverty and the wider welfare of a household demonstrate that many of these households will be trapped in poverty for a number of generations, with poverty resulting, for example, in lower investment in education and a higher probability of health problems. The existence of such a perpetual cycle further emphasises the need for intervention.

The above discussion provides a rather depressing picture, and should persuade donors that this area requires a significant amount of funding to even catch up with the rest of Bangladesh. The impact that CEI can have is arguably limited by fundamentals, such as inadequate infrastructure and poor transport links with other parts of the country, that are restricting economic activity in the area and suppressing opportunities for work. For example, the journey to Rangpur, the nearest city, takes nearly two hours when the distance as the crow flies is a mere 15km. There are many things, however, that CEI can do, and is doing, to improve the welfare of those in Kakina Union and beyond. Indeed, as will be shown in the next section, donors should be encouraged that CEI is having an enormous impact on the area, with its interventions breaking the vicious cycle that poverty often unleashes for countless households.

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An Impact Assessment of CEI Projects

A substantial amount of information has been collected on CEI's three areas of operation: Uttar Bangla College, Kakina Rural Health Centre and Uttar Bangla Poverty Alleviation Society. The majority of this has been acquired from the projects' own databases. Surveys of users and discussions with focus groups have also provided some valuable information. This work has attempted to quantify the significant impact that the work of CEI is already having in Kakina Union and beyond. It also highlights a number of ways in which this impact could be increased further still, and indicates where additional funds, if they become available, may be most effectively allocated. Please note that the majority of the quantitative information can be found in appendix 2. This section draws out the main implications.

Uttar Bangla College

As the only institution offering tertiary education in Kakina Union and with nearly 5,000 students having passed through its gates thus far, 4 UBC is clearly having a transformative impact on the area's education levels. Perhaps the most positive finding of the CEI household survey of Kakina Union is that the (gross) tertiary education enrolment ratio in the area is higher than the national average (see appendix 1). 14% of the population aged 17-25 are enrolled in tertiary education in Kakina Union, compared to the national average of 8.7%. Given that the secondary education enrolment ratio in Kakina Union is lower than the national average, this is particularly impressive. Some of these are enrolled in educational institutions outside of Kakina Union, but 74.3% study at UBC. Quite clearly, the opportunities provided by UBC are encouraging an unusually large proportion of those completing secondary school to continue their education.

Moreover, the capacity and range of courses offered at the College is continually increasing. In 2011, for example, a building specifically for Honours lectures opened, and extensions to the library building were completed. In 2012, there will be two new HSC courses, five new Degree subjects and four new Honours courses (though the latter have yet to be confirmed by the National University). 5 Such efforts to expand the opportunities available in the area mean that annual enrolment is rising significantly each year. As shown in table 1, this has grown by 423.1% since UBC opened in 1994. The efforts of the College board to promote female education means that such growth is particularly impressive for females. In 1994-5, only 9.6% of those enrolling were females, but in 2010-11, this figure was 33.6%.

The College is not only providing educational opportunities for the inhabitants of Kakina Union. As table 10 indicates, students from districts as much as 200km away are studying here. These are likely to be attracted by the burgeoning reputation of UBC for academic excellence. In 2009, the most recent exam period for which Degree results are available, the College achieved the best results in Lalmonirhat district. Moreover, 37.9% of those graduating with a Degree were female. As Honours courses have only been offered at UBC since 2007, final exams are yet to be sat for these.

4 Up to and including 2010-11. Information is not available yet on enrolment numbers for the most recent academic year, 2011-12.

5 From July 2012, Agriculture and Home Economics will be offered as HSC courses. From June 2012, Botany and Geology will be included in the Degree BSc course and Banking, Finance and Statistics will be included in the Degree BBS course. From March 2012, it is proposed that History, Islamic studies, Political Science and Philosophy will be offered as Honours courses.

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Results from the annual assessments indicate, however, that success rates could be equally impressive.

Unfortunately, the employment prospects of UBC graduates do not appear to be as positive. After determining the employment status of all the Degree graduates from 2008 and 2009, the employment rate was found to be 28.3%. Furthermore, as shown in table 11, 76.7% of those working are overqualified for their current job. Discussions with a sample of the unemployed graduates indicate, however, that these poor outcomes reflect the scarcity of suitable employment opportunities in the area, and not a failing on the part of UBC to provide suitable skills. Nevertheless, a number of these suggested that they were unsure about seeking employment in cities, where opportunities are more abundant, as they had little knowledge of IT and could not effectively communicate in English. Given the current lack of graduate jobs in the locality, it appears that an emphasis on improving these skills is necessary to ensure UBC graduates can find employment further afield, and in the process, improve the incomes of their families back home. It should be noted, however, that these findings may only relate to Degree graduates. Those completing Honours courses are likely to have more employment opportunities. It would have been useful to research this further using a sample of graduates from other colleges in the district, but time restrictions prevented this.

The view that a knowledge of IT and the ability to communicate in English are important for a graduate's employment prospects was also found when a sample of current students were asked what changes to their education would improve their employability. As table 12 shows, 54.5% answered 'better IT facilities' and 38.2% answered 'IT lessons'. Indeed, it appears that the majority of students have not used a computer before. In addition, 26.2% believed 'more English training' would improve their employment prospects. Discussions also suggest that students would benefit from attending sessions dedicated to improving their knowledge of job requirements, application processes etc. Of those who knew what they wanted to do as a career, 38.5% had no idea about the process involved in achieving this, whilst 54.9% had a little or no idea about the process involved.

Dr Huq and Professor Monowarul Islam have both expressed a desire to expand the teaching of English language at the College. This has already resulted in a volunteer from England being recruited to teach English at the College for six months from October 2011, and the ability of the students to communicate was noticeably improved after only two of these. It is important that efforts are made to recruit further volunteers in the near future. IT facilities at the College have improved in recent years as a result of the IT Learning Programme and the opening of an IT lab. There is a desperate need for new computer equipment however. There are 13 computers for student use, but, currently, only one is functioning. The remainder either have hardware problems or are missing components, and Helen Mostyn, an IT graduate, believes only four of these are modern enough to be fixable. Given that IT literacy will be increasingly important for a graduate's employment prospects, improving these facilities must be a priority for UBC once there is an easing of the financial constraints that CEI is currently facing

Kakina Rural Health Centre

Treating an average of nearly 4,000 patients every year from an area covering around 250km², KRHC is a provider of vital health services to the locality. With no other MBBS doctor for around

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15km 6, KRHC ensures that the local population has access to an MBBS doctor. 7 Moreover, by charging only 20BDT for an appointment, this service is affordable to the vast majority in this impoverished area. Indeed, a survey of patients showed that 46.9% of those seeking treatment from the Clinic live below the poverty line 8.

KRHC is clearly filling a healthcare vacuum in the area. The CEI household survey of Kakina Union found that 45.7% of households which use an MBBS doctor visit KRHC. More importantly, 85.9% of those households which visit KRHC would not use an MBBS doctor if the Clinic did not exist. This is clear evidence that KRHC is providing vital health services to those who cannot afford to travel the distances which would be required otherwise, and would therefore be forced into using non-MBBS doctors (i.e. unqualified village doctors). The health benefits of using an MBBS doctor, though undoubtedly very substantial, are hard to demonstrate without focused research. Nevertheless, the CEI household survey showed a clear relationship between a household using only a non-MBBS doctor and one of its members having a health problem that has not been diagnosed. 87.6% of these cases existed in households that do not use an MBBS doctor.

Many households are benefiting from the existence of KRHC. However, 51% of households in Kakina Union still do not use MBBS doctors. When asked the reason for this during the CEI household survey, 26.5% had little or no awareness that they exist (see appendix 1). That is, respondents did not know the difference between an MBBS doctor and a non-MBBS doctor. Therefore, they often knew of the existence of KRHC, but did not think that it provides a service any different to that which they receive from a non-MBBS doctor. 36.3% of respondents, on the other hand, said that visiting an MBBS doctor is too expensive. A large number of these, however, were unaware that KRHC charge only 20BDT for an appointment. Or if they were, they believed that an MBBS doctor would prescribe medication that is more expensive than that prescribed by non-MBBS doctors. Both of these findings suggest that a simple awareness-raising exercise about the benefits of using an MBBS doctor, the amount KRHC charges etc. could increase the number attending KRHC, ensuring that the Clinic is benefiting as many people as possible.

However, an awareness-raising exercise will not counteract the view, nor the reality, that KRHC is currently rarely open with the doctor sometimes not available even during the stated opening hours. Indeed, this situation has worsened in recent years due to funding constraints. Since it opened in 2004, KRHC has been open for an average of 7.75 hours a week. In 2011, it was only open for four hours a week. 20.6% of the households which do not use an MBBS doctor said this, often combined with the fact that they have to travel significantly further to KRHC than if they were to see a non-MBBS doctor, was the reason for not doing so. Indeed, these short, and sometimes unreliable, opening hours is also the reason why many households choose to visit an MBBS doctor in Lalmonirhat or Rangpur rather than at KRHC.

Unsurprisingly, given the above, when asked what additions to the area's health facilities would be most beneficial, respondents of the CEI household survey said that increasing the availability of MBBS doctors is the highest priority. As table 18 shows, 96% chose this option. Reference was then made to KRHC, and of these respondents, 95.8% said longer openings would be more beneficial than shorter waiting times. That is, they would want a doctor available for longer rather than more doctors available at any one time. 85.4% of respondents also want a hospital which allows overnight stays.

6    MBBS Doctors are available at the Kaliganj Upazila Health Complex.

  1. Despite government rules dictating that at an MBBS Doctor should be present, there is only a health assistant working at the Government Clinic in Kakina.
  1. This is the upper poverty line as defined for the HIES 2010. 34.7% of KRHC patients live below the lower poverty line. See appendix 1 for further details on these definitions.

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These findings indicate that completing the new building for KRHC must be the focus as soon as funding allows. This facility will mean patients can stay overnight if needed. It will also provide better working conditions for KRHC staff, which is crucial if the long-term ambition of employing at least one full-time doctor is to be fulfilled. Work on the building has halted, however, as the £10,000 provided to finance it has been spent. According to Mr Yahiya Rahman, an additional 700,000BDT (around £5,000 at current exchange rates) is required to complete it.

Uttar Bangla Poverty Alleviation Society

There are currently five projects implemented by UBPAS, but time constraints meant that this report focuses on its provision of adult literacy classes and microcredit facilities (though some information has been collected on the cow distribution programme).

Adult Literacy Classes

With over 2,100 adults having attended its literacy courses since their inception in 2003, covering a massive area of 350km², UBPAS is directly tackling the low levels of adult literacy which exist in this part of Bangladesh 9. Entirely free of charge, current students, 69.5% of which are day labourers, have said these courses present an opportunity that poverty had previously prevented. Discussions with a sample of these suggest the majority want to be literate primarily to improve their self-confidence. Others noted the ability to encourage and help their children with their own education. For farmers and those with small businesses, it is also an opportunity to increase their income through, for example, having more information sources available to them. It is benefits such as these that mean that 79.6% of illiterate adults in Kakina Union are interested in attending a UBPAS-funded course (according to the CEI household survey).

These intensive courses run over a period of six months with up to ten hours of lessons a week. According to Mr Yahiya Rahman, attendance falls slightly as the course progresses. However, the average attendance is high, at around 95%, demonstrating the students' enthusiasm to learn. This is also reflected in the average success rate. Since 2003, around 93% of students have passed the exam at the end of the course. This exam is produced by an independent management committee consisting of local government officials and headteachers, and ensures that the student must have achieved literacy to pass.

This high pass rate shows that the courses are clearly effective and should provide the benefits desired by the students described above. However, according to Mr Yahiya Rahman, the vast majority of graduates lose most of their literacy after a two or three years due to a lack of practice. This is supported by a number of respondents to the CEI household survey who had attended an UBPAS adult literacy course in the past. They can now only write their name and would not consider themselves literate. A question therefore arises about the value-for-money of these courses, with a course costing around 15,000BDT 10. Clearly, attempts should be made to ensure that graduates remain literate otherwise the money is arguably wasted, generally having only a short-term impact. Discussions with various UBPAS staff indicate, however, that there is no obvious

  1. As shown in appendix 1, Kakina Union has an adult literacy rate of only 46.4% compared to the national average of 56.0%.
  1. A course currently costs around 2,500BDT per month. This is composed of 1,500BDT for the teacher's salary, 400BDT for materials and 600BDT for other costs.

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answer. Refresher classes for a year or so after the main course finishes may be helpful. Indeed, current students were positive about this idea. However, the feasibility of this is doubtful. Coordinating teachers' time between current and refresher classes, for example, would be problematic given classes always have to be held in the evening so they do not interfere with students' employment. Another option is to organise unsupervised groups which meet on a regular basis after a course has been completed to read books, newspapers etc. Whether these would be effective or attended in the absence of any supervision are issues that would need to be considered however.

Microcredit Provision

Started in 2006, the UBPAS microcredit programme has benefited over 400 clients in the past five years. Nearly 3,200,000BDT has been dispersed in loans ranging in size from 4,000 to 15,000BDT. Moreover, the desire to ensure these loans are available to as many households as possible is reflected in the eligibility criteria. A client's monthly income must only be 4,000BDT, with only 60BDT needing to be deposited over a three week period before receiving the loan. As a result, nearly 95% of households in Kakina Union are able to access microcredit from UBPAS if desired.

Reaching an area of around 50km², these loans are providing a much needed source of finance to those who are unable to access formal banking services due to their low incomes and lack of collateral. Discussions with beneficiaries clearly show that this programme is an extremely effective weapon in the fight against poverty. Households, many of which were previously dependent on the low and unreliable income earned from manual labour, have been able to start up or expand their own income-generating activities. And, in turn, this is creating further employment opportunities for the local population.

Entaz Ali and his family, for example, were living below the poverty line when he received a microcredit loan in December 2010. The household of five relied on his monthly salary of only 5,000BDT from his job in a grocery shop and the small amount of rice that their land produced. As a result, his eldest son had to leave education before completing his Secondary School Certificate because his family could no longer afford the costs. The loan of 15,000BDT, however, has transformed the welfare of this household. Mr Ali bought two cows and also invested in his land, buying better fertiliser and seeds. This investment meant agricultural production increased significantly, making it possible to sell some of the rice. With the income this generated, he bought an additional five acres of land. As a result, 70,000BDT worth of rice was sold in 2011. The household no longer lives below the poverty line, and can look forward to having a secure income source for many years to come. Indeed, Mr Ali is planning to keep his other two children in education until they have at least passed the High School Certificate.

Chitro Ronjon Roy runs a tailoring business. In July 2011, he received a loan of 8,000BDT, and used this to expand the business by buying another sewing machine. As a result, revenue increased by around 2,000BDT a month. This has not only increased Mr Ronjon Roy's income, but also his employee's. He has increased his employee's hours by about 15 hours a week. The employee now gets paid an average of nearly 7,000BDT a month, an increase of 1,400BDT which he plans to save in order to buy his family a goat. Nurzahan, on the other hand, was just an illiterate housewife when she received a loan of 12,000BDT in November 2011. However, by using the loan to expand her husband's grocery shop, she not only increased the household's income, but also ensured that he now relies on her to provide an extra pair of hands. She says this has given her more influence in household decisions and an active role in the community. Nurzahan now intends to channel the self-

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confidence this has generated into joining an adult literacy class.

The programme's success in providing individuals and households with a brighter future is reflected in the excess demand for loans, with UBPAS often having to turn down applications. This demand was also found during the CEI household survey. 73.5% of the households interviewed were interested in receiving a microcredit loan. 55.1% of these said they would buy animals with this, whilst 17.2% would start a business. Ideas for the latter included buying a hand-loom, making handicrafts, opening a village shop and animal trading.

This huge demand for microcredit not only indicates that any additional funds would immediately start to have a positive impact, but also that there may be room for a small increase in the interest rate, currently set at 12.5% 11, without reducing the number of clients borrowing from UBPAS. The default rate on loans offered before this fiscal year is currently 2% 12. Although this is not particularly high, reflecting the successful generation of a return for clients as well as the hard work of the UBPAS staff in following up late repayments, it means that the current revolving fund is shrinking. The additional 'income' from higher interest rates would ensure that the fund at the disposal of UBPAS is sustainable in the long-term, thus enabling more and more households to benefit from microcredit provision. A higher interest rate does mean, however, that clients will receive a slightly lower return on their loan. In addition to possibly having a large impact on poorer clients, this would, in turn, increase the risk of default.

There are a six other microcredit providers operating in the area 13. It is therefore useful to compare their operations with those of UBPAS, especially with respect to the interest payable on their respective loans and the corresponding default rates. As outlined in table 25, five of the other providers have a higher interest rate than UBPAS. Despite this, none of these have a greater default rate. Indeed, four have a lower rate indicating that these two values are not necessarily correlated. Discussions with these providers as well as UBPAS staff suggest that much depends on repayment collections being done in a regular and robust fashion. Most of the other providers have six or seven staff whose only role is to make these collections, in comparison to the one or two staff at UBPAS who also have a large number of other tasks. As a result, regardless of how hard the latter work, the former can organise their collections better, ensuring potential defaulters are followed up more regularly. This may explain why some of these have better default rates, as well as being a factor that needs to be considered before any change in the interest rate is made. In terms of a higher interest rate reducing the benefits to vulnerable clients in desperate need of the maximum return from their loan, TMSS provide an interesting example of how this could be avoided. By freezing the amount of interest required from the most needy clients, UBPAS could ensure that only those who can afford to pay a higher interest rate do so. This would obviously introduce an incentive for clients to misrepresent their situation, but the risk could be minimised with rigorous background checks. This survey of other microcredit providers in the area has therefore provided some valuable information, which should contribute to any decision on changing the interest rate.

  1. The interest rate increased from its previous level of 10% at the start of the 2011-12 fiscal year as a result of new requirements by the Bangladesh Microcredit Regulatory Authority.
  2. This is the default rate in terms of value. The default rate in terms of the number of loans is 4.8%. The difference between these rates suggests that UBPAS is succeeding in offering smaller loans to clients who are more likely to default.

  1. These are ASA, BRAC, Durbin Bohumukhi Cooperative Society Limited (DBCSL), Grameen Bank, People's Orientated Programme Implementation (POPI) and Thengamara Mohila Sabuj Sangha (TMSS).

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Cow Distribution Programme

Eight young cows were distributed in January 2011 to households which were identified as ultra poor and including vulnerable women. One of these households, for example, was composed of an elderly mother, her two daughters, which had both been divorced by their polygamous husbands when the latter decided they could no longer afford them, and their children.

The cows were bought for 11-13,000BDT and given to the households. The recipients can do what they want with the cows – for example, they can be kept and used for the production of milk, fertiliser, meat, offspring etc., or they can be resold. The only condition the recipients face is that the amount has to be repaid after a year. This involves little risk for the households. As long as the cow does not die or have serious health problems, the recipients are guaranteed not to make a loss as they can always resell the mature cow at the end of the year. Indeed, the cows were chosen on the basis of their potential to grow, ensuring that they can be resold at a much greater price. Thus far, three cows have been resold with the average profit being 4,500BDT. All of this goes to the owners (with cows being almost costless to keep in this area given the ample food available in public areas).

The programme operates on a rolling stock basis, with repayments used to buy and then distribute more cows. The fund therefore is extremely sustainable, as well as effectively providing the ultra poor with additional income. Moreover, the fact that, as noted above, 55.1% of the households interviewed during the CEI household survey would buy animals if they were to receive microcredit, is very encouraging. This programme is clearly providing help in a form that is desirable to the local population. Indeed, the initial recipients are all interested in taking part in the project again, and two of the households which sold their cows in October have already been given another cow each.

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Conclusion

The socioeconomic analysis of Kakina Union has shown that this area of Bangladesh is in desperate need of support from charities such as CEI, trailing behind the rest of the country across a wide range of welfare indicators. 49.1% of the population live below the poverty line in Kakina Union, in comparison to only 31.5% in Bangladesh as a whole. A similar gulf in welfare standards can be seen in mortality and literacy rates. Such statistics should persuade donors that this area requires a significant amount of funding to even catch up with the rest of Bangladesh.

It is clear from the impact assessment, however, that CEI is successfully creating a development model in Kakina Union and beyond, demonstrating that it is possible to do something effective in the fight against poverty. From a college that achieves the best degree results in the district, to a health facility that provides affordable treatment to thousands of people each year, to a microcredit facility which is helping so many out of poverty, the impact that the work of CEI has had, and continues to have, is evident everywhere. Indeed, in the process of collecting information on CEI's projects, it feels like I have met members from every aspect of the local community. To think that all of this has been achieved from the work of only a small group of individuals speaks volumes for their dedication to improving the welfare of others.

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Appendix 1: A Statistical Summary of the Socioeconomic Analysis

Indicator

Kakina Union

Bangladesh

Population

31,390 (1)

-

Number of household

7,100 (1)

-

Area

58.68km² (1)

-

Poverty Headcount Rate:

(a)

- Using the upper poverty line

49.1%

31.5% (2)

- Using the lower poverty line

27.4%

17.6% (2)

Poverty Headcount Rate using the upper poverty line in:

(a)

- Gopal Roy

40.1%

-

- Isorkol

64.1%

-

- Kakina

28.6%

-

- Mahishamuri

63.5%

-

Poverty Headcount Rate using the lower poverty line in:

(a)

- Gopal Roy

26.3%

-

- Isorkol

37.2%

-

- Kakina

10.4%

-

- Mahishamuri

35.7%

-

Average monthly income (in BDT)

- per household

6,922

11,480

(rural areas: 9,648) (2)

- per capita

1,432

2,553

(rural areas: 2,130) (2)

Average monthly expenditure (in BDT)

- per household

6,878

11,200

(rural areas: 9,612) (2)

- per capita

1,424

2,491

(rural areas: 2,122) (2)

Proportion of household expenditure allocated to:

- Food

64.2%

-

- Education

4.2%

-

- Healthcare

8.9%

-

- Sanitation

2.7%

-

Proportion of households using non-MBBS doctors as first line of care

91.50%

67.0% (3)

Proportion of households using only non-MBBS doctors

51.0%

-

Proportion of households using:

- KRHC

21.0%

-

- MBBS doctors elsewhere

25.0%

-

- Government Clinic, Kakina

3.0%

-

Reasons for not using MBBS doctors:

- Little or no awareness that they exist

26.5%

-

- Too expensive

36.3%

-

- Too far away

11.0%

-

- Rarely available in the area

20.6%

-

- Same service as non-MBBS doctors

4.9%

-

- Worse service than non-MBBS doctors

2.0%

-

Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

(b)

61  (4)

52  (4)

Child mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

(c)

150  (4)

133  (4)

Proportion of women giving birth at home:

- Overall

97.6%

85%  (5)

- With no advice

30.1%

-

- With no advice from a qualified midwife

97.0%

-

12

Knowledge of preventative methods for various common health problems: (d)

- Proportion of households that have no knowledge

48.0%

-

- Proportion of households that have little or no knowledge

96.5%

-

Proportion of Households that Report a Health Problem:

- Overall

60.0%

-

- That has not been diagnosed

16.5%

-

Adult Literacy Rate:

(e)

- Overall

46.4%

56.0%  (6)

- Male

51.0%

60.0%  (6)

- Female

41.1%

50.0%  (6)

Youth Literacy Rate:

(f)

- Overall

73.2%

76.0%  (6)

- Male

74.5%

77.0%  (6)

- Female

72.3%

74.0%  (6)

Primary Education Enrolment Ratio, Gross:

(g)

- Overall

93.2%

95.0%  (7)

- Male

87.9%

89.0%  (7)

- Female

91.1%

94.0%  (7)

Secondary Education Enrolment Ratio, Gross:

(g)

- Overall

41.2%

42.0%  (7)

- Male

37.8%

43.0%  (7)

- Female

44.3%

45.0%  (7)

Tertiary Education Enrolment Ratio, Gross:

(g)

- Overall

14.0%

8.7%  (8)

- Male

15.4%

11.1%  (8)

- Female

13.0%

6.2%  (8)

Sub-Group: Higher Education Enrolment Ratio, Gross:

(g)

- Overall

6.2%

-

- Male

6.2%

-

- Female

6.3%

-

Primary Education Enrolment Ratio, Net:

(h)

- Overall

80.5%

86.0%  (7)

- Male

82.4%

85.0%  (7)

- Female

78.5%

86.0%  (7)

Secondary Education Enrolment Ratio, Net:

(h)

- Overall

36.5%

41.0%  (7)

- Male

32.4%

40.0%  (7)

- Female

43.9%

43.0%  (7)

Tertiary Education Enrolment Ratio, Net:

(h)

- Overall

12.5%

-

- Male

13.3%

-

- Female

11.0%

-

Sub-Group: Higher Education Enrolment Ratio, Net:

(h)

- Overall

5.5%

-

- Male

4.6%

-

- Female

6.3%

-

Reasons for persons aged 6-16 not being in education:

- Costs are unaffordable

28.4%

-

- Need to earn income for household

27.6%

-

- Need to do domestic work for household

0.4%

-

- (Additional) education is not thought to be beneficial

20.9%

-

- Marriage

26.2%

-

- Health problems

4%

-

13

Reasons for males aged 6-16 not being in education:

- Costs are unaffordable

32.8%

-

- Need to earn income for household

50.0%

-

- Need to do domestic work for household

0.0%

-

- (Additional) education is not thought to be beneficial

15.5%*

-

- Marriage

0.0%

-

- Health problems

5.2%

-

Reasons for females aged 6-16 not being in education:

- Costs are unaffordable

23.9%

-

- Need to earn income for household

3.7%

-

- Need to do domestic work for household

0.9%

-

- (Additional) education is not thought to be beneficial

26.6%**

-

- Marriage

54.1%

-

- Health problems

1.8%

-

Occupation of working-age population:

(i)

- Overall

Housewife -33.1%

-

Labourer - 24.6%

-

Farmer - 9.0%

-

Student - 8.9%

-

Retired - 6.1%

-

Small businessman - 4.3%

-

Unemployed - 3.1%

-

Rickshaw/Van puller - 2.4%

-

Fisherman - 2.0%

-

Labourer - 35.8%

-

- Male

Farmer - 18.0%

-

Student - 11.6%

-

Small businessman - 8.6%

-

Retired - 5.2%

-

Rickshaw/Van puller - 4.9%

-

Fisherman - 4.0%

-

Factory worker - 3.4%

-

- Female

Housewife - 66.2%

-

Labourer - 13.4%

-

Retired - 7.0%

-

Student - 6.1%

-

Unemployed - 5.2%

-

Occupation of employed population:

- Overall

Labourer - 50.3%

-

Farmer - 18.4%

-

Small businessman - 8.8%

-

Rickshaw/Van puller - 5.0%

-

Fisherman - 4.1%

-

Factory worker - 3.4%

-

- Male

Labourer - 43.5%

-

Farmer - 21.9%

-

Small businessman - 10.4%

-

Rickshaw/Van puller - 5.9%

-

Fisherman - 4.8%

-

Factory worker - 4.1%

-

- Female

Labourer - 86.3%

-

School teacher - 5.9%

-

Labour-force participation rate:

(j)

- Overall

51.9%

59.3%  (9)

- Male

83.0%

87.2%  (9)

- Female

21.5%

31.5%  (9)

Unemployment rate:

(k)

- Overall

5.9%

5.1%  (9)

- Male

1.1%

4.3%  (9)

- Female

25%

7.5%  (9)

14

Reasons for unemployment:

- Too weak to be a labourer, but has no land and not qualified enough for any

25%

-

other job

- Being labourer would make marrying difficult, but not qualified enough for

75%

-

any other job

Reasons for male unemployment:

-

- Too weak to be a labourer, but has no land and not qualified enough for any

100%

other job

-

Reasons for female unemployment:

- Too weak to be a labourer, but has no land and not qualified enough for any

11.8%

-

other job

- Being labourer would make marrying difficult, but not qualified enough for

88.2%

any other job

Underemployment rate:

(l)

- Overall

86.9%

28.7%  (9)

- Male

88.9%

27.5%  (9)

- Female

84.2%

32.5%  (9)

*88.8% of households who thought education, or additional education, was not beneficial for their sons did so in the belief that it wouldn't remove poverty.

**86.2% of households who thought education, or additional education, was not beneficial for their daughters did so in the belief that they would become housewives irrespective of their education, and therefore education was an unnecessary cost.

Definitions Used

  1. Poverty Headcount Rate: Proportion of the population that lives below the national poverty line. The most recent estimates of the national poverty line were calculated for the Household Income and Expenditure Survey in 2010, with both an upper and a lower poverty line considered. These are based on the Cost of Basic Needs Method. A food poverty line was estimated as the cost of acquiring a basic food basket corresponding to 2122kcal per capita per day. The upper poverty

line corresponds to the households whose food expenditure is at the level of the food poverty line. The lower poverty line corresponds to the households whose total expenditures are equal to the food poverty line.

  1. Infant mortality rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1,000 live births.

  1. Child mortality rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births.

  1. Knowledge of preventative methods for various common health problems: Proportion of population that show evidence of knowing how to prevent common cold, fever, diarrhoea, filaria, malaria and typhoid.

  1. Adult literacy rate: Percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write.

  1. Youth literacy rate: Percentage of persons aged 15-24 who can read and write.

  1. Primary/Secondary/Tertiary/Higher Education Enrolment Ratio, Gross: The number enrolled in primary/secondary/tertiary/higher education, regardless of age, divided by the population of the age

15

group that officially corresponds to primary/secondary/tertiary/higher education. Note: tertiary education refers to post-secondary education. Higher education is a sub-group within this, referring to degree-level and above.

  1. Primary/Secondary/Tertiary/Higher Education Enrolment Ratio, Net: The number enrolled in primary/secondary/tertiary/higher education who belong to the age group that officially corresponds to primary/secondary/tertiary/higher education, divided by the total population of the same age group. Note: tertiary education refers to post-secondary education. Higher education is a sub-group within this, referring to degree-level and above.

  1. Occupation of working-age population: Occupation of persons aged 15 and over.

  1. Labour-force participation rate: Proportion of the population aged 15 and over that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work.

  1. Unemployment rate: Share of the labour force without work but available for and seeking employment.

Information Sources

The source of the information on Kakina Union is the Kakina Union Household Survey 2011 unless stated otherwise.

Other sources:

  1. Kakina Union Government Office – information correct as of 2007
  2. Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010
  3. Mahmood, S. S., Iqbal, M., Hanifi, S. M. A., Wahed, T. and Bhuiya, A. (2010) 'Are Village Doctors in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?' BMC International Health and Human Rights 10 (18)
  4. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007
  5. UNICEF: The State of the World's Children Report 2009
  6. World Bank: World Development Indicators 2011
  7. UNICEF: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bangladesh_bangladesh_statistics.html – information correct as of 2009

  1. World Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/country/bangladesh – information correct as of 2009

  1. Bangladesh Monitoring of Employment Survey 2009

16

Appendix 2: Data to Support the Impact Assessment

Uttar Bangla College

Tables 1 and 2: Overview of Enrolment

ñ  Information is not available yet on enrolment numbers for the most recent academic year, 2011-12.

First Year of

Total Enrolment

Growth in Annual

Gender Composition

Gender Composition of

Gender Composition

Enrolment

of Initial Enrolment

2010-11 Enrolment

of Total Enrolment

Enrolment

up to 2010-11

Overall

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

Enrolment at UBC

1994-5

4905

423.1%

284.4%

1726.7%

90.4%

9.6%

66.4%

33.6%

70.9%

29.1%

Enrolment on HSC

1994-5

3099

84.6%

41.1%

493.3%

90.4%

9.6%

69.1%

30.9%

73.0%

27.0%

Enrolment on Degree

1997-8

927

195.7%

63.2%

825.0%

77.3%

22.7%

71.7%

28.3%

62.7%

37.3%

Enrolment on Honours

2007-8

879

422.7%

384.5%

552.9%

82.6%

17.4%

45.6%

54.4%

72.4%

27.6%

1994-5

1995-6

1996-7

1997-8

1998-9

1999-2000

2000-1

2001-2

2002-3

2003-4

2004-5

2005-6

2006-7

2007-8

2008-9

2009-10

2010-11

Total

Enrolment at UBC

156

138

53

143

159

137

142

205

240

104

213

241

392

484

693

589

816

4905

Enrolment of Males at UBC

141

93

42

109

126

102

103

156

177

76

150

176

267

346

466

407

542

3479

Enrolment of Females at UBC

15

45

11

34

33

35

39

49

63

28

63

65

125

138

227

182

274

1426

Enrolment on HSC

156

138

53

97

126

94

116

187

215

84

147

153

336

297

291

321

288

3099

Enrolment of Males on HSC

141

93

42

71

105

74

84

144

162

66

106

109

235

216

201

214

199

2262

Enrolment of Females on HSC

15

45

11

26

21

20

32

43

53

18

41

44

101

81

90

107

89

837

Enrolment on Degree

-

-

-

46

33

43

26

18

25

20

66

88

56

112

172

86

136

927

Enrolment of Males on Degree

-

-

-

38

21

28

19

12

15

10

44

67

32

72

108

53

62

581

Enrolment of Females on Degree

-

-

-

8

12

15

7

6

10

10

22

21

24

40

64

33

74

346

Enrolment on Honours

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

75

230

182

392

879

Enrolment of Males on Honours

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58

157

140

281

636

Enrolment of Females on Honours

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17

73

42

111

243

17

Table 3: Enrolment on HSC Courses

ñ  Information is not available yet on enrolment numbers for the most recent academic year, 2011-12.

1994-5

1995-6

1996-7

1997-8

1998-9

1999-2000

2000-1

2001-2

2002-3

2003-4

2004-5

2005-6

2006-7

2007-8

2008-9

2009-10

2010-11

Total

Total Enrolment on HSC

156

138

53

97

126

94

116

187

215

84

147

153

336

297

291

321

288

3099

Total Enrolment of Males on HSC

141

93

42

71

105

74

84

144

162

66

106

109

235

216

201

214

199

2262

Total Enrolment of Females on HSC

15

45

11

26

21

20

32

43

53

18

41

44

101

81

90

107

89

837

Enrolment on HSC

156

138

53

97

94

52

73

137

170

40

97

93

246

207

207

231

209

2300

Enrolment of Males on HSC

141

93

42

71

74

35

51

103

120

28

61

70

162

144

145

143

134

1617

Enrolment of Females on HSC

15

45

11

26

20

17

22

34

50

12

36

23

84

63

62

88

75

683

Enrolment on HSC Humanities

131

122

41

69

73

38

62

96

119

20

66

40

136

118

119

122

125

1497

Enrolment of Males on HSC Humanities

118

78

32

46

55

22

43

68

73

12

38

24

71

73

69

60

70

952

Enrolment of Females on HSC Humanities

13

44

9

23

18

16

19

28

46

8

28

16

65

45

50

62

55

545

Enrolment on HSC Science

14

10

7

19

12

10

8

19

15

5

5

18

44

46

26

30

20

308

Enrolment of Males on HSC Science

13

9

7

16

12

9

5

17

14

2

3

16

34

36

23

21

16

253

Enrolment of Females on HSC Science

1

1

0

3

0

1

3

2

1

3

2

2

10

10

3

9

4

55

Enrolment on HSC Commerce

11

6

5

9

9

4

3

22

36

15

26

35

66

43

62

79

64

495

Enrolment of Males on HSC Commerce

10

6

3

9

7

4

3

18

33

14

20

30

57

35

53

62

48

412

Enrolment of Females on HSC Commerce

1

0

2

0

2

0

0

4

3

1

6

5

9

8

9

17

16

83

Enrolment on HSC (BM)

-

-

-

-

32

42

43

50

45

44

50

60

90

90

84

90

79

799

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM)

-

-

-

-

31

39

33

41

42

38

45

39

73

72

56

71

65

645

Enrolment of Females on HSC (BM)

-

-

-

-

1

3

10

9

3

6

5

21

17

18

28

19

14

154

Enrolment on HSC (BM) – Computer Operation

-

-

-

-

16

21

21

25

24

21

25

30

30

30

29

18

17

307

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM) – Computer Operation

-

-

-

-

15

20

16

22

24

21

24

19

24

25

22

11

12

255

Enrolment of Females on HSC (BM) – Computer Operation

-

-

-

-

1

1

5

3

0

0

1

11

6

5

7

7

5

52

Enrolment on HSC (BM) – Secretarial Science

-

-

-

-

16

21

22

25

21

23

25

30

30

30

26

21

22

312

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM) – Secretarial Science

-

-

-

-

16

19

17

19

18

17

21

20

19

18

16

18

19

237

Enrolment of Females on HSC (BM) – Secretarial Science

-

-

-

-

0

2

5

6

3

6

4

10

11

12

10

3

3

75

Enrolment on HSC (BM) – Banking

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

30

29

22

14

125

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM) – Banking

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

29

18

20

13

110

Enrolment of Females on HSC (BM) – Banking

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

1

11

2

1

15

Enrolment on HSC (BM) – Accounting

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13

11

24

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM) – Accounting

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

8

19

Enrolmentr of Females on HSC (BM) – Accounting

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

5

Enrolment on HSC (BM) – Entrepreneurship

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

15

31

Enrolment of Males on HSC (BM) – Entrepreneurship

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

13

24

Enrolment of Females on HSC (BM) – Entrepreneurship

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

2

7

18

Table 4: Enrolment on Degree Courses

ñ  Information is not available yet on enrolment numbers for the most recent academic year, 2011-12.

1997-8

1998-9

1999-2000

2000-1

2001-2

2002-3

2003-4

2004-5

2005-6

2006-7

2007-8

2008-9

2009-10

2010-11

Total

Total Enrolment on Degree

46

33

43

26

18

25

20

66

88

56

112

172

86

136

927

Total Enrolment of Males on Degree

38

21

28

19

12

15

10

44

67

32

72

108

53

62

581

Total Enrolment of Females on Degree

8

12

15

7

6

10

10

22

21

24

40

64

33

74

346

Enrolment on Degree BA

29

19

32

17

16

13

18

33

40

35

35

32

9

13

341

Enrolment of Males on Degree BA

24

12

19

11

11

6

8

17

26

18

23

23

5

4

207

Enrolment of Females on Degree BA

5

7

13

6

5

7

10

16

14

17

12

9

4

9

134

Enrolment on Degree BBS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

20

8

19

32

11

12

116

Enrolment of Males on Degree BBS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

19

5

16

24

8

8

91

Enrolment of Females on Degree BBS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

3

3

8

3

4

25

Enrolment on Degree BSc

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

5

6

4

5

3

4

3

34

Enrolment of Males on Degree BSc

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

5

5

4

4

1

3

2

27

Enrolment of Females on Degree BSc

-

-

-

-

-

1

0

0

1

0

1

2

1

1

7

Enrolment on Degree BSS

17

14

11

9

2

9

1

14

22

9

53

105

62

108

436

Enrolment of Males on Degree BSS

14

9

9

8

1

7

1

11

17

5

29

60

37

48

256

Enrolment of Females on Degree BSS

3

5

2

1

1

2

0

3

5

4

24

45

25

60

180

19

Table 5: Enrolment on Honours Courses

ñ  Information is not available yet on enrolment numbers for the most recent academic year, 2011-12.

2007-8

2008-9

2009-10

2010-11

Total

Total Enrolment on Honours

75

230

182

392

879

Total Enrolment of Males on Honours

58

157

140

281

636

Total Enrolment of Females on Honours

17

73

42

111

243

Enrolment on Honours Accounting

27

65

65

80

237

Enrolment of Males on Honours Accounting

23

42

57

70

192

Enrolment of Females on Honours Accounting

4

23

8

10

45

Enrolment on Honours Bengali

-

-

-

50

50

Enrolment of Males on Honours Bengali

-

-

-

29

29

Enrolment of Females on Honours Bengali

-

-

-

21

21

Enrolment on Honours Economics

10

50

50

50

160

Enrolment of Males on Honours Economics

5

38

35

37

115

Enrolment of Females on Honours Economics

5

12

15

13

45

Enrolment on Honours English

8

50

2

32

92

Enrolment of Males on Honours English

6

39

1

29

75

Enrolment of Females on Honours English

2

11

1

3

17

Enrolment on Honours Management

30

65

65

80

240

Enrolment of Males on Honours Management

24

38

47

57

166

Enrolment of Females on Honours Management

6

27

18

23

74

Enrolment on Honours Psychology

-

-

-

50

50

Enrolment of Males on Honours Psychology

-

-

-

28

28

Enrolment of Females on Honours Psychology

-

-

-

22

22

Enrolment on Honours Sociology

-

-

-

50

50

Enrolment of Males on Honours Sociology

-

-

-

31

31

Enrolment of Females on Honours Sociology

-

-

-

19

19

20